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With a diversified economy, the weight of the primary sector in the regional economy stands out (about 20 thousand of the 80 thousand companies of the Alentejo region have activity in the primary sector – CAE A). The network of industrial and business spaces is well ordered and is mostly served by a network of accesses with direct connection to national and transnational infrastructures (motorways, ports and airports).

The economic activities associated with the primary sector (agriculture and forestry), directly linked to the Coak Oak Forest and the economic valorization of its resources are present throughout the territory, being essential for the balance of this unique ecosystem and for the regional economy. Alentejo is home to the largest national farms (65% of the farms with more than 50 hectares in Portugal are in the Alentejo), with a utilized agricultural area (SAL) of 58.9 hectares (the average of Portugal is around 14 hectares).